Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation, especially the Earth. This is done by detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by sensing, recording and measuring it’s reflected and emitted radiation at a distance (typically from satellite, aircraft, or drone ). Special cameras collect remotely sensed images, which help researchers “sense” things about the Earth. Remote sensing are applied in RADAR, Laser, LIDAR, polarimetry, aerial photography, hyperspectral imaging, etc.
Remote sensing provides Geo-information(Geo-spatial data) which comes in imageries. The quality of remote sensing data consists of its spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions. This data are used for earth environmental monitoring and process studies of the Earth system covering atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, and their interactions. Information like greenhouse gases, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea surface wind, ocean color, sea surface height, topography, land cover, soil moisture, carbon cycle, sea ice, snow, glaciers is capture in remote sensing imagery.
They are also used in operational applications such as Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and weather forecasting, fisheries, disasters such as biomass burning, floods, ship navigation, geology, agriculture, natural resources management, city planning, traffic and transportation, military stability, and business trade. Results of analysis with GIS technology can be applied to any decision-making plan quickly and accurate
To visualize Remote Sensing data for analysis and interpretation purposes, sensor data from various sources has to be processed and combined to produce geometry and color information using GIS. most of the remote sensing data are integrated within GIS for efficient use. This data are represented in 2D or 3D (maps, web map). A large number of proprietary and open-source applications exist to process remote sensing data include ERDAS IMAGINE, ENVI, SNAP, PCI Geomatica, IDRISI, ESRI, ERMapper, etc