What is Land survey
Land Surveying is a technique used to make accurate measurements in determining both man-made and natural features, positions of points, the distances and angles between property boundaries accurately.
Land Surveying and Geoinformatics was initiated in Nigeria because all the laws and regulations that govern the discipline recognizes ‘surveying’ as the registered nomenclature; consequently, until such laws and regulations are amended to reflect the change in nomenclature, the two words are combined to reflect the modernization of the profession while not infringing on the subsisting laws and regulations.
Hence, Surveying and Geoinformatics is a discipline that encompasses all methods for measuring, processing, and disseminating information about the physical earth and our environment.
Types of land survey
Land surveys can be divided into three basic categories:
- ALTA/ACSM Survey: ALTA surveys are used to meet, promote standards and nationwide uniformity in land survey information.
- Boundary Survey: Boundary survey involves field and office work, locating or setting corners of a parcel of land as legally described in a deed or document of record.
- Construction Survey: This survey makes use of information gotten for interpreting, planning and efficiency of land and marine management, land and entire structures.
- Location Survey: Improvements on the property in relation to the apparent boundary lines of the property can be determined using the location survey.
- Site Planning Survey: Site surveys are inspections of an area where work is proposed, to gather information for a design or an estimate to complete the initial tasks required for outdoor activity.
- Subdivision Survey: Subdivision is the process of dividing a piece of land into smaller pieces.
- Topography Survey: Determining the relative locations of points (places) on the earth’s surface by measuring horizontal distances, differences in elevation and directions.
LAND SURVEY HISTORY IN NIGERIA
The initiation of Landrveying in Nigeria can be noted to be as old as Nigeria itself. Surveying as the name implies is one of the oldest professions practised in the country.
In addition, there is evidence of the practice of the profession even before the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates in 1914. For example, a map of old Calabar town was produced on a scale of 11930,000 by the Presbyterian Church as far back as 1868 (Ayeni, 1981).
Also, survey departments existed in Lagos and Kaduna as early as 1899 and 1900 respectively. Much of the activities of these departments were mostly cadastral.
The discovery of tin ore in Jos in 1912 and the boom in agricultural activities in Kano provided the necessary rationale for carrying out cadastral surveys (Okoronkwo, 1984). Furthermore, the first system of levels run in Nigeria was in 1891, while the first system of levelling for vertical controls in Nigeria started in 1920 and continued up to 1945 (Fajemirokun & Nwilo, 1990; Ebong, 1981).
PURPOSE OF LAND SURVEY
The reason Land surveys are paramount is to initiate the processing of responsible land development. They are commonly used to determine the boundaries and features of properties, to determine easements and encroachments, the to develop or build on the land, and to satisfy local building codes and regulations. There are many different types of land surveys.
The common reason for Land survey is that it helps to resolve the problems that arise from property line disputes among neighbours. as are property sales and purchase contractual agreements. The American Land Title Association, the National Society of Professional Surveyors and the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping regulate land surveying in the US and determine the specific criteria for land surveying.
TYPES OF Equipment USED IN CARRYING OUTLAND SURVEY
- Dutch Hill T-REX Composite Tripod
- SECO 2-Meter GPS Rover Rod
- Pelican Case 1500
- Safety Apparel “The Party Chief” Survey Vest
- Pfeiler Quality Products Cantilever Column Pod
- SECO 25ft Pocket Tape
TECHNIQUES USED IN LAND SURVEY