Cadastral is the method of registering land, designed to ensure the rights of individuals and the state of their property.
GIS as a subset of information systems enables capturing, storing, checking, integrating, analysing and displaying data about the earth that is spatially referenced.
Therefore, for planning purpose all land-associated information should be available in the form of a computer database, which can be easily accessed, manipulated by decision-makers while formulating and executing work.
Such a database system is called Land information system. Cadastral applications will include cadastral index maps and land registration data in a digital format.
A cadastral map is a map which provides detailed information about real property within a specific area.
A complete set of maps is necessary to perform this function. Maps help determine the location of the property, indicate the size and shape of each parcel and reveal geographic relationships that affect property value.
Maps and map data are important not only for assessors, but also for other governmental agencies, the public at large, and the land information community (such as realtors, title companies, and surveyors).
For mapping systems, the primary identifier for assessment purposes should be a location identifier.
A location identifier is a symbolic representation for the name and the location of an airport, navigation aid, or weather station, and is used for manned air traffic control facilities in air traffic control, telecommunications, computer programming, weather reports, and related services.
Spatial data contain the coordinates and identifying information for various map features. These types of features can be represented in the map, viz., point, line and areas/polygons etc.
The various physical aspects of the map, viz., political boundaries, roads, waterways, and so forth are organized into different layers according to their common features.
Data used in a GIS is an attribute data associated with any particular land area. Data views can be associated with the map through links to the spatial data.
For instance, the spatial data might represent a county and contain information for city boundaries, census tract boundaries, streets, and so forth.