Application of GIS in Disaster Management
Use of Geospatial Technologies in Collecting & Analysing Data in Real Time
Natural disasters are dangerous events that occur as a result of natural processes on Earth. Floods, earthquakes,
hurricanes/cyclones, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and other geological processes are examples of natural disasters. Human actions cause man-made disasters. Disasters have a negative impact on humans, other creatures, and, ultimately, ecosystems.
Disaster management is the process of planning for and responding to natural disasters. It entails carefully coordinating resources to mitigate the damage caused by calamities. It also entails a systematic strategy to handling catastrophe prevention, readiness, response, and recovery duties.
Disaster management (or emergency management) is distinct among GIS applications in that it directly addresses loss of life and property damage. While comprehensive disaster management systems can save thousands of lives, poorly managed disaster management can lead to significant casualties, property damage, and economic loss when a disaster occurs.
Our society must rely on innovative geospatial technology and services to develop a comprehensive disaster management system. One of the most important technologies for the future development of disaster management systems is mobile GIS. Mobile GIS and mobile Geographic Information Services enhance the mobility, usability, and flexibility of standard GIS. Mobile GIS are integrated software and hardware frameworks that allow mobile devices to access geospatial data and services via landline or wireless networks. The ability to include Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and ground-truth measurement within GIS applications is a distinguishing feature of mobile GIS.
Mobile GIS services are a framework for accessing network-based geospatial information services using mobile GIS devices (GIS services). Mobile GIS services can be used in a variety of GIS applications and scenarios, including vehicle navigation, utility management, environmental monitoring, and habitat protection. One of the most popular sectors in the recent development of Mobile GIS services is disaster management and emergency response.
Mobile GIS services, for example, may combine GPS and satellite imagery to help local governments and emergency response teams detect potential problem regions. As a result, vital “hot zones” can be quickly developed. During natural disasters such as wildfires, floods, and tsunamis, near real-time spatial analysis models enabled by GIS could be utilized to quickly produce the most effective evacuation routes and emergency strategies. Wireless Internet-based GIS could also help public policymakers, firefighters, and other first responders determine where their forces and resources should be dispatched. To achieve these objectives, it is critical to provide new mobile GIS services technology to emergency management employees and allied organizations. Furthermore, emergency management and first responders must be aware of both the benefits and limitations.
Remote Sensing Technology has a deep-rooted application in disaster mapping & management. This technology operates by detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring it’s reflected and emitted radiation at a distance. Remotely sensed data can be used very efficiently to assess the severity and impact of damage due to these disasters.
Remote sensing data is collected in a variety of optical, radar, thermal, and lidar formats. All of these things help in different ways to map and assess the damage. Thermal data, for example, aid in determining any damage caused by heat signatures like as explosions or gas leaks, among other things. Radar and lidar data can be utilized to successfully handle occurrences like earthquakes and landslides. Surface damage, such as demolished buildings, is mapped using optical data, while floods are assessed using digital elevation models and other indices. One of the most commonly utilized approaches for determining the severity of damage is temporal change detection. Images from before and after the disaster/event are compared to estimate the change in terms of damage.
The use of Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies can aid in flood hazard or risk mapping for land use planning in flood-prone areas. Flood hazard is determined by a variety of elements such as surface slope, amount of rain, drainage density, soil type and texture, and so on. Remote sensing provides various techniques to find fire risk zone areas such as Vegetation indices and ultimately create a Forest fire risk zone map using the remote sensing software.
Due to scientific advancements, it is now possible to carry out these operations more efficiently. Studies have contributed to the ability to foresee and replicate disaster occurrences in specific regions, assisting in the early stages of search and rescue operations. Satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS) aid in identifying disaster-prone areas, zoning them based on risk magnitudes, assessing populations, and assets at risk, and simulating damage scenarios. These tools are very important in disaster management since they enable immediate access to information needed for management choices.