Business requirements for information systems are as diverse as the many types of businesses that exist. Hence, most organizations use information systems for one or more of five applications: transaction processing, operations, inventory control, planning and decision-making, and internal management and control. GIS can be used for these functions because this technology possesses capabilities that are common to traditional a spatial information system. spatial visualization, database management, decision modeling, and design and planning are the most GIS capabilities that are deployed in business and commerce.
- Digital Mapping
One of the first applications of geographic information technologies was that of capturing spatial data to generate maps automatically. GIS produces digital maps representing powerful tools for business applications because it provides managers with the ability to generate spatial data in-house. Digital mapping with GIS provides visual interpretation of businesses related data with the address list. With GIS, direct marketing is made ease by revitalizing selling strategies by reaching out to customers directly with locational intelligence. Also, plotting desire lines showing stores that serve customers.
- Transportation and Logistics
GIS is increasingly becoming a critical tool for addressing logistics and transportation problems. A number of specific tools fit into this category of GIS. These tools include vehicle routing and navigation systems, intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), dispatch systems, production control systems, and inventory systems. Each of these technologies represents useful applications that managers can use to develop tactics to reduce waste, lower personnel, and fuel costs, and provide better customer service.
GIS-based Network Analysis is a GIS capability that enables geospatial network-based analysis and management to solve network-related problems in emergency services, transportation and logistics, traffic and routing, resource allocation, and utility maintenance. The use of GIS-based Drive-Time Analysis helps in determining a trade area based on how long a customer must drive to get to the store factoring in street speed limits, traffic volumes, and other impedance. GIS-based Market Share Analysis is used in optimizing the locations of facilities so the allocated demand is maximized in the presence of competitors using tools like location-allocation. GIS-based route optimization resolves the nearest gas station, restaurants, or coffee shop using GPS-based positioning and geocoded business data.
- FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
GIS has been used extensively for facilities management in the public sector and private sector providing managers with a powerful tool for supporting real-time monitoring of facilities and is routinely used for emergency management, security, and other applications.
With GIS spatial visualization and database management functions integrated with facilities management, historical or transaction (real-time) data are used in managing and monitoring facilities in different locations. They also rely heavily on the imaging capabilities of GIS to represent the spatial arrangement of data elements. The digital mapping function of GIS is often combined with FM functions to provide organizations with a system for generating, managing, and utilizing maps and other spatial data that can be used to manage an organization’s physical plant. Utility companies make extensive use of GIS for facilities management. and also give the opportunity for a listing of all the capital projects with different stages of completion.
- Market and Demographic Analysis
The primary function of market analysis is to understand the marketplace i.e estimating the market size and character using customer’s information. GIS-based market analysis help in presenting the relationship between the components of the market; that is, the customers, suppliers, and competitors. Strategies such as target marketing, micro-marketing, and relationship marketing all require that firms capture and maintain detailed information about their customers.
GIS is a powerful tool in market analyses because it also provides a way to bring together data from multiple sources and link them based on spatial attributes.
- Internet of Things–
Improving efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit through a network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, buildings, and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange information with one another.